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আমরা আলোচনা করতে চলেছি Affirmative Sentence থেকে Negative Sentence এ রুপান্তরের কিছু নিয়ম। তার আগে আমাদের মনে রাখতে হবে

১। একটি Negative Sentence এ অবশ্যই একটি Negative word থাকবে। এরকম কিছু Negative word হল-

No, not, never, nothing, none, nobody, no one, nowhere, neither, nor ইত্যাদি।

Affirmative sentence কে  negative sentence এ রুপান্তরিত করতে হলে অবশ্যই একটি negative word ব্যবহার করতে হবে।

মনে রাখতে হবে ‘not’  শুধুমাত্র  auxiliary verb  এর সাথেই বসে।

যেমন- I do not know. এখানে ‘do’  একটি  auxiliary verb.

She is not coming. এখানে‘’is‘  হল একটি  auxiliary verb.

 ২। affirmative sentence এবং  negative sentence এর অর্থ(sense) অপরিবর্তিত থাকবে।

যেমন-

Affirmative – I like the book.(আমি বইটি পছন্দ করি।) [Turn into negative] 

Negative – I do not like the book.(আমি বইটি পছন্দ করি না।) ❌ (এটি ভুল উত্তর)

Negative – I do not dislike the book. (আমি বইটি অপছন্দ করি না) ✅ ( এটি সঠিক উত্তর)

এখানে আমরা যদি শুধুমাত্র  negative word বসাই তাহলে দুটি বাক্যের অর্থ আলাদা আলাদা হয়ে যায়।

I like the book. ≠ I do not like the book.(দুটি বাক্যের অর্থ এক নয়।)

তাই আমরা এখানে main verb এর বিপরীত শব্দ (like – dislike)  বসিয়ে বাক্যটির অর্থ অপরিবর্তিত রেখেছি।

I like the book. = I do not dislike the book.( দুটি বাক্যের অর্থ এক।)

Rules for Transformation of Affirmative to Negative Sentences:

 Rule 1

Use a Negative Word + Opposite Word of the Main Word( একটি Negative word বসাও + Main Word এর বিপরীত শব্দ বসাও)

* main word টি সাধারণত adjective,verb অথবা adverb হয়।

Examples:

AffirmativeNegative
He is tall.He is not short.
I am doubtful.I am not sure.
I shall remember you.I shall not forget you.
She is innocent. She is not guilty.
This is harmful.This is not harmless.
Man is mortal.Man is not immortal.
This is beautiful. This is not ugly.
The fan is moving fast.The fan is not moving slow.
Rajesh is a good student. Rajesh is not a bad student.

Rule 2

fail’ + infinitive. (Infinitive = to + V1)

এক্ষেত্রে ‘fail’  হয়ে যায় main verb এবং affirmative sentence  এর main verb বসে to এর পর (to + v1)

Examples:

AffirmativeNegative
He made us laugh.He did not fail to make us laugh.
The boy saw the Eiffel Tower. The boy did not fail to see the Eiffel Tower.
Speak the truth.Don’t fail to speak the truth.
He handled the situation. He did not fail to handle the situation.
She plays football. She doesn’t fail to play football.
She won the match.She didn’t fail to win the match.

Rule 3

Use “None but”:

affirmative sentence যদি ‘only’  বা ‘alone’  শুরু হয়, তাহলে only/alone কে তুলে দিয়ে  ‘None but’ বসিয়ে negative sentence এ পরিবর্তন করা হয়।

Examples :

AffirmativeNegative
Only he can do this.None but he can do this.
Only the members are allowed. None but the members are allowed.
You alone will finish the project.None but you will finish the project.
A teacher alone can do this.None but a teacher can do this.
Only the rich will support this bill.None but the rich will support this bill.

Rule 4

Use “Nothing but”:

যদি affirmative sentence ‘Only’  থাকে এবং তার পর কোনো বস্তুর (object) উল্লেখ থাকে তাহলে Negative Sentence এ রুপান্তর করতে “only” তুলে দিয়ে তার জায়গায় “Nothing but”  বসাতে হবে।

Examples:

AffirmativeNegative
I play only cricket.I play nothing but cricket.
Only the moon was visible. Nothing but the moon was visible.
I like only crime thrillers.I like nothing but crime thrillers.
He has only a plastic ball.He has nothing but a plastic ball.
Shyambabu drinks only coffee. Shyambabu drinks nothing but cofee.

Rule 5

Use No sooner…than”

affirmative sentence এ যদি “As soon  as” থাকে  তাহলে Negative Sentence এ পরিণত করতে হলে  As soon as তুলে দিয়ে তার জায়গায় no sooner…than  বসাতে হয়।

Structure-

No sooner + auxiliary verb* + subject 1 + verb 1 + object 1 + than + subject 2 + verb 2 + object 2.

আরও সহজভাবে বললে,

No sooner + clause 1 + than + clause 2

*No sooner do/does ( Present Indefinite)
No sooner did ( Past Indefinite)
No sooner had ( Past Perfect)

No sooner did বসালে Verb এর Base Form (V1) হয়

Affirmative– As soon as I reached the station, the train left.

Negative – No sooner did I reach the station than the train left.

No sooner had বসালে Verb এর Past Participle Form বসাতে হয়।

Affirmative– As soon as I reached the station, the train left.

Negative – No sooner had I reached the station than the train left.

Examples:

AffirmativeNegative
As soon as the teacher entered the class, the students stopped talking. No sooner had the teacher entered the class than the students stopped talking.
As soon as the thief saw the police, he ran away.No sooner had the thief seen the police than he ran away.
As soon as he arrived the airport, the plane went off.No sooner had he arrived the airport than the plane went off.
As soon as I stopped talking, I went to sleep.No sooner did I stop talking than I went to sleep.

Rule 6

Use Not only…but also

যদি affirmative sentence এ “Both…and”  থাকে, তাহলে Negative Sentence এ রুপান্তর করার জন্য “Not only…but also” বসাতে হয়।

Examples:

Affirmative Negative
Both Raju and Rajesh play well.Not only Raju but also Rajesh plays well.
I can play both football and cricket.I can play not only football but also cricket.
Rashmi is both brave and brilliant. Rashmi is not only brave but also brilliant.
Switzerland is both clean and pollution free.Switzerland is not only clean but also pollution free.
Both Deb and Kumar are confused. Not only Deb but also Kumar is confused.

Rule 7

Use “so…that”

affirmative sentence এ যদি ‘too…to’ থাকে তাহলে এর বদলে so…that (so + adjective/adverb + that) বসিয়ে Negative Sentence এ রুপান্তর করা হয়।

Examples:

AffirmativeNegative
He is too weak to walk.He is so weak that he cannot walk.
I was too busy to receive your call.I was so busy that I could not receive your call.
The boy is too small to climb the tree.The boy is so small that he cannot climb the tree.
The ice is too cold to touch.The ice is so cold that one cannot touch it./The ice is so cold that it cannot be touched.
The stone is too hard to break.The stone is so hard that one cannot break it./The stone is so hard that it cannot be broken.

Rule 8

Use “Not more than”

Only এর পরে সংখ্যা থাকলে Only এর পরিবর্তে not more than বসাতে হয়।

AffirmativeNegative
I have only hundred rupees.I have not more than hundred rupees.
The girl scored only 40% marks.The girl scored not more than 40% marks.
There are only 10 seats available.There are not more than 10 seats available.
He takes only two cups of tea.He takes not more than two cups of tea.
I have only a computer.I have not more than a computer.

Rule 9

Use “Can not but”

Affirmative sentence এ must থাকলে negative করার সময় must এর পরিবর্তে can not but/ can not help বসে। তবে can not help এর পরে যে verb থাকে তার সাথে ing যুক্ত করতে হয়।

AffirmativeNegative
We must obey our parents.We can not but obey our parents./ We cannot help obeying our parents.
You must care them.You can not help caring them.
You must buy this book from here.You cannot but buy this book from here.
I must go down to the seas again.I cannot but go down to the seas again.
You must take rest now.You cannot help taking rest now.

Rule 10

Use “Never + opposite word”

Affirmative Sentence এ always থাকলে তার জায়গায় Never বসাতে হবে এবং মূল শব্দের বিপরীত শব্দ বসাতে হবে।

AffirmativeNegative
I shall always remember you.I shall never forget you.
Always remember this.Never forget this.
He is always present in the meeting.He is never absent in the meeting.
He is always punctual.He is never late.
Always tell truth.Never tell a lie.
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