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Lesson 1 Can You Live Alone?

A. Look at the pictures below and discuss in pairs the following question and suggestion.

1. Can you live alone in a house?

Answer: No, I cannot live alone in a house.

2. Make a list of the problems you think you will have if you live alone in a house, e.g. having accidents, feeling lonely, etc.

Answer: having accidents, feeling lonely, cooking problem, no help in need, feeling bored, monotonous life etc.

B. Read the story and answer the questions that follow.

Long ago, a young man who lived in a village, found his life full of problems and sufferings. Quarrels, ill-feelings, jealousy, enmity— all were part of everyday life there. So he left his house and went to a jungle to live by himself. There he made a nice little hut with wood, bamboo and reeds. “Ah, how happy I am here!” said the man to himself.

But one day he found some mice in his hut. The little creatures soon made holes in his blanket. So he brought a cat to kill the mice. The cat needed milk. So he brought a cow. The cow needed grass and hay. So he brought a cowhand.

The cowhand needed food. So he took a wife to cook meals. Then children were born to them, and the man found himself again in a family.

So nobody can live alone, unless that person is either an angel or a devil. People need food, shelter, companions and help. They need to look after each other. And if they live in a family or community, their needs can be fulfilled. Hence living in society can make people good and happy citizens.

C. Close your book and answer the question. What five things did the young man do in the jungle? Now divide into groups of five. Tell the story to the groups sequentially.

Answer: (1) He brought a cat to kill the mice. (2) He brought a cow. (3) He brought a cowhand. (4) He took a wife to cook meals. (5) The man found himself in the family again.

D. Answer the following questions. First discuss in pairs, then write the answers individually.

1. Why did the young man leave his house?

Answer: The the young man left his house because he found his life full of problems and sufferings.

2. Where did he make a hut? What did he make the hut with?

Answer: The young man made a heart in the jungle. He made the hut with wood, bamboo and reeds.

3. Was the man happy in his hut?

Answer: No, the man was not happy in his hut.

4. How did he find himself again in a family?

Answer: The young man left his house because he found that his life was full of problems and sufferings. So he left his house and went to jungle. But later in the jungle he realised that it was not easy to live alone because problems did exist in the jungle too. So he brought a cat, cow, cowhand and finally a wife and had children with her. So the man found himself again in a family.

5. Where and how can a person be happy?

Answer: A person can be happy in a family or community. We need love, companion, food, shelter, help etc that can be filled only by family or community.

6. What is the moral of the story?

Answer: The moral of the story is – To live a happy life we must live in a family or community.

E. Look at the pictures (a—j). Read the texts that follow (1—10). Match the pictures with the texts. Write the numbers of the texts next to a, b, c, etc. The first exercise is done for you.

1. People living in a community or society often have problems. A family may have a problem with a particular member (a son / daughter) who keeps bad company. So they talk to each other to solve the problem. (E)

2. To prevent theft or robberies, constant security measures are often necessary within the village / city area. (H)

3. A community may have a problem-like it doesn’t have a primary school in the village or locality. So the community members need to discuss the issue in a meeting and find out how to set up a school for their children. (G)

4. Cooking should not be exclusively a woman’s job. (B)

5. Young learners must cultivate virtues and acquire knowledge and skills to prepare themselves to carry out their roles as good citizens. So they need to study formally in institutions. (J)

6. To establish peace and harmony among the people in a locality / village, experienced and elderly people often mediate between quarreling parties. (A)

7. Only studying at school is not enough for young learners. They must also acquire knowledge and skills at home as well as from the media, clubs, games and sports, libraries and so on. (C)

8. People in a society / locality often need to buy things at home. So there are vendors who sell necessary things. (D)

9. In a village or locality roads often need repairing for easy movement of people and transport. (F)

10. Along with acquiring knowledge and skills, the youth must cultivate good qualities like genuine sympathy for the weak and the poor. They should help the needy, show respect to others and have a strong sense of dignity of work.(I)

F. Discuss in pairs and write the answer to the following question: What can we do at home and in the locality to become good citizens?

Answer: We can respect our elders and behave properly with them. We can help our parents in need etc.

In locality we can do some good works like helping the poor and needy, respecting others’ opinions, educating the children etc.

Lesson: 2 Knowledge, skills and attitudes

A. Discuss in groups the possible answers to the following question. Then read the text in B and answer the question.  What else do you need in addition to food, shelter and company to become a good citizen?

Answer: In addition to food, shelter and company we need education, skill, morality, law, guidance etc. to be a good citizen.

B. Read the text.

To be a good citizen, you have to prepare yourself to do good work in society. Well, then how can you prepare yourself?

First, you need knowledge. Today’s society is knowledge-based. Without having knowledge of modern sciences, technologies including ICT and other necessary subjects, you will have difficulty living a good life. The other areas you, as a good citizen, should have knowledge about are:
• our country, its constitution, geography and people
• our state, its executive and legislative powers
• our judicial system
• our government and its structures and functions
• our history, cultures, traditions, literature, moral values and religions
• our socio-economic activities and educational system

Second, you need skills to do things. Knowledge is not enough. You must be able to apply your knowledge to do things practically.

Finally, knowing and doing things will bring about a change in your behaviour towards others. This behavioural change will show your attitudes towards others, that is, it will show how you think and feel about a person or thing.

Let’s take an example. Suppose you, as a student, need to know about ‘group work’ in the classroom. So you ask yourself or your teacher or anyone else, “What is group work?” Or you may find about it in a book. In this way, you may know, or you may have the knowledge about group work. To do group work, the class has to be divided into groups. Each group is to do some tasks given by the teacher or in the textbook. The group members will discuss and share ideas and points, and finally one member will write the answers.

Then you start working in groups. In each group you take turns discussing points and answering questions. In this way you can actually do the task. Your teacher may monitor and help you to do the work.

Lastly, through regular group work it is expected that there will be noticeable changes in your behaviour. Possible changes are:

• You will develop the skill of speaking freely in English with your classmates and teacher.
• Your shyness will gradually disappear.
• You will develop the attitude of helping and cooperating with each other.
• You will learn to behave in a democratic way.

Most importantly, these behavioural changes taking place in you inside the classroom will be carried over outside the classroom in real-life situations.

C. Suppose you have learned at school how to make your drinking water safe and when and how much you should drink it in a day. Now write a short paragraph about how to make drinking water safe and its importance.

Answer: Drinking water can be made safe by treating it to remove contaminants such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, chemicals, and other impurities. Some common methods of water treatment include filtration, disinfection, and adding chemicals like chlorine to kill harmful microorganisms.

Safe drinking water is essential for human health and well-being as contaminated water can cause waterborne diseases such as diarrhea, cholera, and typhoid fever. Access to safe drinking water is also important for social and economic development, as it helps to reduce the burden of illness, improve productivity, and promote sustainable livelihoods.

D. Read the text below. Then discuss with your partner and write K (if the text is knowledge based) or S (if the text is skill based) or A (if the text refers to attitude) against each text.

1. According to Abraham Lincoln, the 16th president of the United States, a democratic government is a “government of the people, by the people, and for the people.” This means that the people have the right to control their government. (K)

2. Two students are making a kite with coloured paper, sticks, glue and string.(K)

3. Tisha’s room was always messy. She could not find things easily. Recently she visited her cousin Ritu in Chittagong. She saw that Ritu’s room was very neat and tidy. Everything was exactly in its place. Ritu could instantly find what she wanted. After getting back home, Tisha spent a whole weekend making her room well organised. (K)

4. “It is the duty of every citizen to observe the constitution and laws to maintain discipline, to perform public duties and to protect public properties.” (The Constitution of The People’s Republic of Bangladesh) (K)

5. Students in pairs are acting out a dialogue in a class.(K)

6. Mouli is back from school. She is very hungry and looks exhausted. “What’s wrong, Mouli?” asks  her mother anxiously. “Don’t worry, Mom. I’m OK. I just didn’t have my tiffin today.” “But why?” “Our peon died this morning. With other students I gave my tiffin money to the widow.” (A)

7. The students of physical education class are practising stretching exercise in the school yard. (S)

8. The affairs of Dhaka city were run by the Dhaka Municipality until 1978, when the city came under Dhaka City Corporation. (K)

E. Discuss in groups. Write how K S A can be shown in the following topics:

Orsaline Debate E-mail

Lesson: 3 Good Character

A. Ask and answer these questions in pairs.

1. What do you understand by character?


2. What does a person with a good character usually do to others?

B. Listen to the Techer/CD/Audio and answer the following questions.

Listening text 1

Questions: Tick the best answer.

1. Which is the correct statement according to the information in the listening text?

(a) Good character does not mean special qualities.
(b) Good citizens must have good character along with other qualities,
(c) Character means a tool to curve wood.
(d) Character traits are distinctive marks always seen on a person’s face.

Answer: (b) Good citizens must have good character along with other qualities.

2. The red crest of a rooster

(a) is a symbol of power and strength,
(b) enables it to crow in the morning,
(c) makes the bird tall and beautiful,
(d) shows how it is different from a hen.

Answer: (a) is a symbol of power and strength,

3. The expression ‘distinctive qualities’ means those qualities of a person, which

(a) are the same as others’.
(b) emphasise honesty in him/ her.
(c) make him / her different from others.
(d)   he / she gets from their parents.

Answer: (c) make him / her different from others

4. Character traits are

(a) naturally gifted.
(b) personally learned.
(c) God given.
(d) physically visible.

Answer: (b) personally learned

C. Fill in the blanks in the following passage with appropriate words from the box.

harmonious    allow   behaviour     respect    good   doing family class     others   sense   qualities   believe personally

Citizens possessing good character live a life of virtue. They may belong to any social 1) class, upper or lower. Their thoughts and 2) behaviour show high moral values. That is, they have a strong 3) sense of right and wrong. So what they do is 4) good for themselves as well as for others in the 5) family and in the society. In fact, they cannot even think of 6) doing any wrong to others. One of the most positive 7) qualities  of these people is tolerance towards 8) others . Suppose a group of people in your community 9) allow or practise something which you do not like 10) personally . But as a good citizen you should 11) respect them to perform their activities. Thus tolerance can generate 12) qualities for people of other cultures. Tolerance and respect together can make life   13) harmonious and peaceful in society.

D. Read the completed passage and tick the best answer.

1. People with moral values

(a) can do anything they like.
(b) belong to upper social class.
(c) do good only for themselves.
(d) cannot do anything wrong to others.

Answer: (d) cannot do anything wrong to others

2. ‘Tolerance’ means

(a) allowing others to say and do what they like.
(b) having a good character.
(c)  having disagreements with others.
(d) a quality that every citizen has.

Answer: (a) allowing others to say and do what they like.

3. What can make life harmonious in society?

(a) performing religious rites
(b) encouraging cultural values
(c) respecting others’ beliefs and opinions
(d) fulfilling religious obligations

Answer: (c) respecting others’ beliefs and opinions

E. Find the opposites of these words. If you do not know any, look it up in your dictionary. Then make a meaningful sentence with each of these opposites:

right — wrong

If you have moral values, you cannot do any wrong to your fellow beings.

tolerance — intolerance

Intoleance towards others’ beliefs is not good for society.

respect –disrespect

We shouldn’t disrespect our elders.

allow –prevent

We should try to prevent pollution.

enjoyable — boring

The programme in the hall was very boring.

F. Write a paragraph about how tolerant or intolerant you are towards your classmates. Give reasons.

Answer: I am very tolerant towards my classmates. I talk to each of them. Whenever we take decisions, we exchange our opinions and decide collectively. I do not hate or disrespect anyone.

Lesson: 4 Responsibilities

A. Read the text.

Rony’s mother gave him 50 taka to buy salt and chillies. On his way to the market, Rony found a poor passer-by trying to hold a boy up, who was lying on the road, groaning. Coming near, Rony saw that it was his classmate Tanim, who was hit by a speeding motorbike. Immediately he stopped a baby taxi and took Tanim to a clinic. From there he phoned Tanim’s parents. When they came to the clinic, Rony returned home without the salt and chillies. He had used the money to pay the taxi driver.

Now discuss in groups the following questions.

1. Did Rony do right or wrong? Why ?


2. What do you think his mother did when Rony returned home without the salt and chillies?


3. What else could Rony do in the situation?


4. What do you understand by responsibility?

B. Read the text and answer the following question: What is responsibility?

A responsibility is a duty or an obligation TO DO something. For example, you have the responsibility to attend school and pursue your studies properly, to take care of your parents in their old age, and so on. You also have responsibility to your society and the government, e.g. to help a neighbour in trouble or to cast your vote if you are 18 or over.

A responsibility is also an obligation or a duty NOT TO DO something. For example, you have the responsibility not to steal a book from a public library or not to pile up your building materials on the footpath. These are your responsibilities as citizens. But there are responsibilities of the government as well. Our government has the responsibility to provide for its citizens “the basic necessities of life, including food, clothing, shelter, education and medical care”1. The government also has the responsibility to protect the fundamental rights of its citizens which include freedom of speech and expression, freedom of the press, freedom of religion, equality of all before law2 etc.

The knowledge, skills and attitudes you have gained at home, at school and in society will help you to be aware of your responsibilities and to carry them out effectively. Remember, discharging your responsibilities will be good for you, good for your family and friends, and good for your society and country as a whole.


1. The Constitution of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, Part II.
2 Part m, ibid (Ibid : abbreviation from Latin ibidem which means in the same book or piece of writing as the one that has just been mentioned.)

C. Discuss in groups and write answers to these questions.

1 Which persons and institutions do ou have responsibilities for? Make a list. The first in the list is done for you.
a. parents

2 Make a list of responsibilities you have as a student at home, school and in society.

3 Make another list of things you shouldn’t do at home, school and in society.

4 Who do you get help from to discharge the responsibilities you have listed in CI? How do they help you?

5 Are there any difficulties in fulfilling the responsibilities? Briefly describe them.

6 Make a list of responsibilities other people have towards you. Briefly describe what might happen if they fail to fulfill the responsibilities.

7 (a) What rewards are you likely to get if you fulfill your responsibilities?
  (b) What penalties or punishments may you get, if you do not carry out your responsibilities?

8 What responsibilities do you think you can perform well when you go on a class picnic or when your school stages a play as part of its annual prize-giving ceremony?

D. Look at the picture. Work in pairs.
Suppose this road is near your school. As students of this school, what responsibilities do you think you have to get rid of this nuisance? Make a list of things that you will do.

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